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Synopsis: Inthe 19th Amendment to the U. Constitution received approval from three-fifths of the states and the right to vote was extended to women. Minnesota was the 15th state to ratify the amendment, in LawsFirst Special Session, Resolution 1.

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Legislative History: The text of the 19th amendment re: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on of sex. It was originally written by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and introduced in but did not pass out of the U. Congress until To achieve passage of the amendment before the elections, President Wilson put his muscle behind the amendment and, in Juneit narrowly passed. It then went to the states for ratification, which happened in short order by June When the US Congress sent the amendment to the states for ratification, Wisconsin was the first state to ratify in June Minnesota was the 15th state to ratify the so-called 'Anthony Amendment,' receiving approval from both the House and Senate on the first day of a special session on September 8, InTennessee became the 36th state to ratify and the amendment achieved the three-fifths state approval required for a Constitutional amendment.

Interestingly, nine states did not officially ratify the 19th Amendment until well after the s, with Mississippi being the last to ratify -- in Prior tothe campaign for suffrage in Minnesota was splintered and loosely organized, yet advances were made. In a constitutional amendment passed that allowed Minnesota women the right to vote in school elections LawsChapter 2.

But two years later, a temperance-related suffrage constitutional amendment was defeated LawsChapter 2. That amendment proposed that women could vote on a 'question of selling, or restraining the sale, or licensing the selling, or the manufacture of intoxicating liquors. As the national movement for suffrage gained strength, so did Minnesota's movement for suffrage. Minnesota suffragists began to use new tactics such as parades, rallies, advertising, and promotional tours in newly purchased automobiles.

They even had female stunt pilots put on aerial shows in support of suffrage. Inthe Legislature passed a law allowing women to vote for presidential electors LawsChapter 89and later in the year ratified the national amendment ensuring universal suffrage.

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Though suffrage granted all women in the United States the right to vote, certain populations were not allowed to become full citizens which denied the women of these populations the right to vote. And despite passage of that law, states still could decide whether or not Native Americans could vote. Selected Resources Stuhler, Barbara. Bethesda, MD: Lexis Nexis. This is a reel index to the extensive microform collections of suffrage materials at the Minnesota Historical Society.

Synopsis: InMinnesota eliminated all gender qualification from jury service. LawsChapter Legislative History: Trial by jury, as an idea, dates back to the Magna Carta inwhich specifies that only men could be jurors. While a few American states allowed females on juries before women's suffrage, most did not.

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The approach of states to the issue of female jurors was varied. Some states allowed women on juries, ipso facto, along with suffrage. Other states required a constitutional amendment to change the law. Most states, including Minnesota, used the legislative process to add women to the pool of potential jurors. Minnesota was one of a group of eight states that promptly passed female juror laws after the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified. InMinnesota passed a law allowing women to act as petit jurors and grand jurors; it stated that all jury laws apply to both men and women and 'all sex qualification is hereby removed.

Senator Harlow Bonniwell was quoted in the Minneapolis Morning Tribune,'I have too high a regard for the women of Minnesota to use my vote in this Senate to force them to sit in court and listen to the filth that often is served up in testimony and then be locked up in a room with a lot of men to discuss such a mess of nastiness.

LawsChapter A third law allowed the courts to appoint a female bailiff when juries of both men and women were chosen. Historical Context: Jury service was one of the first big tests of women's newfound strength after the Nineteenth Amendment was enacted in Although you might assume that the right to serve on juries would have come automatically with the right to vote, this was not the case in most states.

While Utah was the first state to allow limited jury service for women, instates such as Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas and Florida did not permit females to serve on juries until the midss. Inthe Federal Jury Selection Act prohibited discrimination in jury service on the basis of gender, and inthe US Supreme Court overturned its own ruling in Hoyt v.

FL which upheld the right of Florida to require women to essentially request permission to serve on juries. The thoughts behind excluding women from jury service included: taking women away from their small children would be detrimental to the children; women might be more sympathetic and tender-hearted toward criminals; women on juries posed practical problems when it came to sequestration; and women should be shielded from the 'salacious and revolting' cases dealing with sex offenses.

Includes comments from the Minnesota Attorney General on women jurors. Blackduck History Includes an excerpt from the Blackduck American newspaper, 'January At the February term of court Beltrami County women will take their place with the men both as grand and petit jurors. Douglas of the village has the distinction of being the first woman drawn on the grand jury.

Proquest link. Synopsis: Inthe state of Minnesota enacted legislation deed to limit the of hours women could engage in paid labor.

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Legislative History: Inthe Minnesota Legislature passed legislation deed to protect women and children from unscrupulous employers and from the rigors of constant manual labor. The law limited the of hours women could work to no more than 9. The law didn't apply to live-in maids. This law was refined many times over the next several decades. For example, in a law deleted the restriction on the of hours a woman could work per day, yet retained the weekly limit of 54 hours. Among other changes, it exempted women 'engaged in the seasonal occupation of preserving perishable fruits, grains, and vegetables.

Historical Context: Although the passage of the 19th Amendment prohibited discrimination in voting, many suffragists feared that women could and would still be discriminated against in other areas of their lives. The amendment proposed equality for men and women in all legal matters. At the same time, other feminist leaders and legislators were enacting laws that prohibited women from working beyond a set of hours per week or day. Intended to protect women from sweatshop conditions and lower pay, these laws were in direct conflict with those people who argued instead for equality in all matters.

The newly formed League of Women Voters formerly the National American Women Suffrage Association strongly lobbied against the Equal Rights Amendment on the grounds that it would invalidate protective labor laws for women. The stalemate between these two groups of feminists on the issue of protective labor laws for women lasted several decades. The Fair Labor Standards Act provided federal protection for both sexes, but by then gender-specific labor laws were widespread. Supporters of these laws argued women needed to be protected from exploitation. Opponents felt that they protected men from female competition.

These laws kept women out of jobs requiring overtime or heavy lifting. During War World II protective labor laws were suspended to allow women to work in war industries, and reimposed after the war when some women were forced to leave their jobs. Synopsis: InMinnesota passed amendments to its human rights law to prohibit discrimination against women in employment, housing, public accommodations, public service and education. The MHRA, now codified in Chapter A of Minnesota Statutes, prohibits all forms of illegal discrimination across a spectrum of groups and in different areas of the economy, except where there is a bona fide occupational requirement.

Amendments to Minnesota human rights law affecting women were added incrementally. LawsChapter This was a huge milestone for women in Minnesota; in fact, Minnesota's law went beyond federal law in that it required anyone employing one or more workers to comply with the law. Inthe MSAAD became MHRA and was further amended to prohibit sex discrimination in the areas of housing, public accommodations, public service, credit eligibility and education. It also extended protected status to women based on their marital status.

Inprotection from discrimination in employment and education based on pregnancy was added to the MHRA. Historical Context: The early s were active years in the area of women's rights legislation. The limitations and implications of state and federal civil rights laws were being tested in the courts, locally and up to the Supreme Court. Civil rights issues dovetailed with women's rights issues under the banner of general human rights. Many states formed human rights commissions or departments and produced a barrage of anti-discrimination laws during the s that are still being amended to this day.

The Minnesota Human Rights Act, enacted inis the umbrella legislation covering illegal discrimination on the basis of race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, public assistance status, pregnancy status, disability, age and sexual orientation. Department of Human Rights Timeline. Legislative History: From its inception inthe Equal Rights Amendment highlighted the conflict between women's groups who advocated for legislative equality for all, and other women's groups who favored protective legislation for women.

The Equal Rights Amendment ERA that passed both houses of Congress in contained three simple components: equality of rights cannot be denied due to sex; Congress shall enforce the amendment; and the amendment would take place two years after ratification. Although ratification was never a guarantee, many states such as Minnesota did substantial legal work behind the scenes to prepare for the effect on Minnesota laws should the ERA take effect.

Minnesota was one of eight states to ratify the ERA in By a total of 35 states had ratified the amendment, three states short of the required Although the official deadline for ratification has passed, there are still groups advocating a 'three state strategy' to continue the push for ratification. She called it the 'Lucretia Mott Amendment,' to honor another prominent suffragist.

The Equal Rights Amendment was introduced in Congress that year, and in every subsequent year with substantially the same language until It wasn't until the s that support for the ERA gained substantial strength in the wake of the civil rights movement and through the added support of labor unions. Inboth houses of Congress voted to send the Equal Rights Amendment to the states for ratification. In passing the amendment, Congress placed a seven-year ratification deadline for the necessary 38 states to ratify. By the time the deadline arrived inonly 35 states had ratified the amendment.

InAlice Paul died, never having seen the amendment successfully enacted. The deadline for ratification was extended by three years, but by then enthusiasm for its passage had waned, groups opposed to the amendment had organized, and the of states needed to ratify remained at three. The most ificant arguments against the ERA included: denial of women the right to be supported by their husbands; opposition to sending women into combat; opposition to links between women's rights and the abortion and homosexual rights groups; opposition to what was perceived as a federal power grab; and general religious opposition.

Although the issue of an Equal Rights Amendment has largely subsided from public debate, there are groups who are still advocating for its passage. Selected Resources Alice Paul Institute. The Equal Rights Amendment. The website includes an overview and timeline. Synopsis: Minnesota enacted a no-fault divorce law. Legislative History: InMinnesota enacted a no-fault divorce law.

This law deleted the specific grounds for divorce that needed to be proven before a couple could dissolve their marriage. The law didn't eliminate fault as a consideration for division of property or alimony this has since been changed to a no-fault status as well, although Minnesota courts have latitude in allocating financial consequences for 'bad behavior'.

In enacting this law, legislators were following the lead of numerous other states who were rewriting their divorce laws. Historical Context: Dating back to before the 20th century, anyone wanting a divorce in Minnesota would have to prove that one spouse was guilty of one or another of a list of grievous offenses toward the other spouse. The concept of a no-fault divorce was actually pioneered by the Bolsheviks; subsequent to the Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks passed a Divorce Decree in that removed all church-driven moral judgments from legal affairs.

In the United States, California was the first state to enact no-fault legislation. New York was the last state to become no-fault, waiting until to pass such legislation prior to this change, New Yorkers needed to be legally separated for a year before a divorce was granted.

It should be noted that to this day, there are arguments both for and against no-fault divorce within the women's rights movement. Arguing for no-fault divorce are those who say that domestic violence and female suicide rates are lower with no-fault divorces and that prior to these laws, many women were economically and emotionally powerless to prove their spouses guilty of bad behavior.

Additionally, lawyers complained about the 'legal fictions' that many couples created to justify divorces, using valuable court time and money. Arguing against no-fault divorces are those who say that fathers' rights are being curtailed with a presumption of child custody toward the woman, even if he has done no wrong. Also, some women argue that no-fault divorce takes away any bargaining leverage from the non-moneyed spouse. Lastly, there are those who argue that no-fault divorce devalues marriage to the point of no longer being a contract.

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